Dialysis


What  is  dialysis?
It is a filtering process that removes toxins and fluids from your body when your kidney can no longer do it.





Purpose to keep the right levels of chemicals, fluids, and salts in your bloodstream; control your B.P. and remove waste products.



 Principle  of  dialysis
Diffusion: movement of solute from high to low concentration.
Osmosis: movement of solvent (water) from high to low concentration.
Ultra filtration: movement of fluid from high to low pressure.



Why  dialysis  is  needed?
If  85% to 90% of  kidney function is reduced and  health care provider does not expect  kidney function to return normal then there is need of  dialysis to remove waste product from bloodstream. §Dialysis also may help if kidneys suddenly stop function for a shot period of time (a condition called acute kidney failure). It can occur after major surgery, serious infection, severe dehydration, prolonged period of low blood pressure, drug reaction, direct injury to the kidneys or autoimmune diseases such as lupus.



Two types of dialysis are available:
Hemodialysis
Peritoneal dialysis



Hemodialysis §It is most common type of dialysis. §It uses a filter called hemodialyzer to remove waste products and cleaned blood is returned into body.






Procedure For this treatment, there is need of a simple surgical procedure that will create a connection between your blood vessels, called a fistula or graft. Sometimes a narrow plastic tube called catheter is placed in neck or chest. §Treatment take 3 to 4 hrs and done for three times a week. §Usually, hemodialysis is done at dialysis centre. Patient need to follow a special diet so that waste doesn’t build up too quickly in blood.



Peritoneal dialysis It uses abdominal cavity as the filter. §It can be used for acute or chronic kidney failure and can be done at home .
Procedure During surgery, a catheter is inserted into abdominal cavity just below navel. A fluid called dialysate is placed into abdomen through the catheter, and it stays in abdomen for 4 to 6 hrs.
The dialysate attracts waste products and excess fluid, so when dialysate drain out waste products removed as well.





Two main types of peritoneal dialysis are:
CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis).
It uses gravity to move fluid in and out of abdomen.
CCPD (continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis)
It uses a machine called a cycler to exchange fluid while you sleep.